In earlier postings, most recently here, I have used a model to explore the concepts of programme and project management. It appears simple but has hidden depths. Discussions with Richard Watson and with my tutor group suggest that we should adapt the model by including (a) the concept of ‘benefit’ as something that can be delivered through programme ‘outcomes’ and (b) the idea that, over time, benefits will impact the wider environment. For example a variety of project outputs enable the outcome of a school that is educating local children. That outcome gives rise to the benefit that better-educated people are entering adult society. Over time that benefit has an impact on economic and other conditions in that society.